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Service dogs by definition are dogs that are trained to assist and empower people with disabilities. They are the professionals of the dog world and include leader dogs for the blind, therapy dogs, hearing assistance, physical assistance, and security dogs.

For a dog to be considered a legal working service dog, protected under the ADA, it must be trained to perform special jobs and tasks that are specific to its handler's disability. This type of dog is very different from a pet - even if the pet knows many tricks and is extremely well behaved.

Basic tricks such as sit, stay, roll over, heel, speak, shake, etc. do not count as tasks or jobs under the ADA. Even if the pet has undergone many types of obedience classes. The type of tasks that service dogs perform includes alerting their handler of low blood sugar, guiding the blind, pulling a wheelchair, bringing in groceries, picking up dropped objects, keeping their handler from danger, etc.

It takes around 2 years of training for a dog to become a service dog and can cost their handlers thousands of dollars. They are solely trained to help enrich people’s lives that have different types of disabilities. While the handler does consider these dogs as their pets when they're off duty, as soon as the dog is out in public, working and performing tasks, it is not considered a pet. Instead, they are the equivalent of medical equipment required due to a disability, just as a wheelchair is considered a necessity for people unable to walk.

Also, it is not required for the handler to show any type of certification, ID, or proof that they have a disability or that their dog is a service dog required because of their disability. Many people who obtain certification are doing so to pass their pet off as a fake service dog. This is illegal and punishable by law.

Realistically, probably not. It takes a ton of training. It's possible to teach your dog little tricks like picking up dropped items, and opening and closing doors to help you out around the house but if you're in need of more help than that and you want a dog that you can take in public, then you'll need an actual working dog.

Most training programs breed dogs with the intent of training them into service dogs and they start the training when they're a puppy. It can take 2 years of training until the dog is ready.

Once you've applied for a dog, you'll be put on a waiting list and the program will try to find the best match for you. Once they find the perfect match, both you and the dog will undergo 3-4 weeks of training together to teach you how to work with your dog and to create an unbreakable bond.

What are the differences between "work" and "tasks"?
A task is defined as a piece of work to be done. In regards to working dogs, it's a specific thing that has only one result. For example, cuing the dog to open the door will result in the door being open.

Work (also known as a job) is defined as an activity or effort done in order to achieve a purpose. For working dogs, a group of several tasks can be considered work. For example, saying that your service dog is "on duty" or "at work" means that the dog is currently in the process of completing several different tasks to achieve a purpose.

How Can I Turn My Pet Dog into a Service Dog?

Poodle dogs are divided into three different types: the miniature, standard, and toy. The American Kennel Club, an authority on dog breeds, defines the varieties by size. Standard poodles should be more than 15 inches at the top of their shoulders. Miniature poodles are defined as 15 inches or less at the highest point on the shoulders and more than 10 inches. Toy Poodle should be measured at 10 inches or less at the highest point of the shoulders.

Standard poodles were the first variety of the poodle dog breeds. It was created to retrieve waterfowl for hunters. The name "poodle" was probably derived from the German "pudelin", which means splash in the water.

A lot of people think of the poodle cut as something invented for pampered little dogs to appear pretty, but it was really invented for standard poodle in its original function as a water retriever. The rare coat has been cut off to allow the dog to swim better while leaving the chest hair intact to protect its vital organs from cold water. The pom on the dog tail and the bow on the head were used to assist the hunters locate and spot their dogs in the water.

The standard poodle size has made it useful in many other capacities. Poodles have been trained as guide dogs, guard dogs, army dogs, hunting dogs, even as sled dogs. Prince Robert of the Rhine, the cousin of Charles I of England, had a white standard poodle named Boy, whom he took to battle with him, who died in 1644 at the Battle of Marston Moor. The Emperor Napoleon mentioned in his memoirs a standard poodle that died in the battle of Marengo. During the Second World War, standard poodles were used in the United States to protect military installations and coastlines. Because they are hypoallergenic, poodles make a good guide dogs for blind people with allergies.

The miniature and toy poodles were bred during the Renaissance, when European nobles wanted little dogs for their companions. People carried little poodles around in their sleeves during cold weather. To this day, miniature and toy poodles are seen as companion dogs often carried around in bags or suitcases. Small poodles were used to find any type of fungus called truffle because they would disturb the ground less than the larger once. Small poodles were trained by gypsies to perform tricks and were used in circuses and vaudeville.

The two types of poodles not recognized by the AKC are Klein and tea cup poodles. The Klein is medium height between the standard and miniature, with a height of between 15 and 20 inches at the top of the shoulder. The Kleins, or moyens, as they are known in France, are generally kept as pets in American homes because of their inability to compete in AKC shows. Tea Cup Poodles are the smallest and measures just nine inches at the highest part of the shoulder. They usually weigh only six pounds or less.

Whatever its size, poodles are known to be one of the most trainable and intelligent dog breeds,. If you purchase a poodle, train it early and socialize it early to have a happy companion.

Different Types of Poodle Breeds

When it speaks about the word "adoption" responsibility coincides. If a person or a family adopts a pet they will see to it that they can cope up with the needs of the animals. So before going deep with the adoption process, they are engaged to some sort of counseling on how they treat their pets. One of its common examples is the golden retriever puppies adoption. This breed is noted to be a family dog. Although it is commonly used as hunting dogs, its cuddliness can't be denied by anyone who wanted to adopt a pet.

If you try to search for golden retriever puppies, you have to consult first with your local animal shelters or rescue groups. You can also try the online browsing to avail more adoption services As you adopt a puppy, you have to bear in mind that it requires a lot of time, effort and love. You have to be prepared with great responsibility. However, your efforts will be paid as you see them energetic and lovable. Goldens are easy trained dogs and friendly. All you need is to be patient during the training process.

People who would engage in golden retriever puppies adoption should know some information regarding this stuff. As you start, the first thing that you have to prioritize is when and where to drain the bladder of your puppy. Their bowel movement is not totally developed. You have to spend some time walking after meals with your puppy. In the first approach, the puppy won't follow right away, so you have to train them step by step. Even so, golden retrievers are fast learners so there's no problem with training them.

You must provide toys for your puppy to keep them busy. In order to avoid them scratching your things around the house. There are suggestions that you should spend at least 15-20 minutes of training every day. It is like training up a child with the things that he or she needs to know. You have to impose discipline on your pet. Set limitations for them. For example, is to control the amount of food that they eat. Goldens are prone to obesity, so you have to do something about it. If you adopted a puppy, you have to teach your kids to love them because your pet is now a part of your family.

Remember that golden retriever puppies adoption is a serious matter, so if you think that you are a busy person, don't bother to have one, but if you really wanted to adopt, you can hire someone to take care of your pet. There are some pet shops that offer different types of services for your dogs. Just imagine having their company for around 15 years, what a long year of enjoyment with your pet. As you train them, you can grab the chance of joining some dog shows. This activity is very helpful to your golden retriever. You can enhance their ability and intelligence. You won't regret having them around. But the sad thing about golden retrievers is that they are easily tamed by a stranger, that's why they are not as good as watchdogs. On the other hand, they can perform well as rescue dogs.

Golden retriever puppies adoption is a wise idea of embracing a new member of your family. So try to visit online services now. As long as you are open with the responsibilities in adopting one.

Read This Before Adopting a Golden Retriever Puppy

Recently, dog birthday parties are becoming very popular, many people treat their dogs as part of the family, and for people without children; dogs often become the focus of attention. When your dog's birthday rolls around you may be asking yourself the question; what kind of birthday cake should I get for my dog? There are many options as far as kinds of cakes and places to get them online and abroad.

One choice for dog owners is to make their own peanut butter carrot cake. This recipe is easy and quick. The ingredients it calls for are flour, baking soda, peanut butter, vegetable oil, carrots, vanilla, honey, and eggs. Pretty much all you have to do is mix all the ingredients up, put them into a cake pan, and bake at 350 degrees for 30 minutes. You'll have a healthy birthday cake for your dog to eat in little to no time at all.

If you're not the individual who wants to make their own cake then you can search the Internet for companies that make birthday cakes for dogs. After a little research, you will be able to decide which company you would like to choose. Most, if not all, of these companies, will ship the cakes to you in a very short period of time. They offer a wide variety of ingredients, and styles of cakes to meet your needs. In addition, they do sell other items that may be of interest such as treats, toys, and other dog related items.

You may want to check out your local grocery store and see if they have any cakes that would be available for dog consumption. Of course, you want to stay away from anything that has chocolate in it. Doing a bit of research on the Internet will enable you to select a good choice in regard to a birthday cake for your dog. You will want to ask your veterinarian what would be okay to give your dog (if shopping at the grocery store) especially if your dog is on a strict or selective diet.

If you don't get your dog a birthday cake then you may just want to stock up on some extra dog treats and or biscuits. A trip to your local pet store should satisfy your requirements. Ask the salesperson if they have anything special for a dog's birthday. They may have items there that are specific for this event, and they may even have some items that you wouldn't have thought of.

There are many other resources to look at in regard to dog birthday cakes and items to buy. Besides taking a trip to your local bookstore, you may want to conduct a search for dog birthday cake ideas online. Research the items that are of interest to you, and try out new and creative things. Your dog will be happy no matter what you choose, and it will be fun to experiment.

Great Options For Dog Birthday Cake

Dogs with seizures is related to a neurological condition that is basically the same as with people. Just like with people there are different types of seizures that can affect dogs. These include:

- Epilepsy - which means the seizures occur repeatedly over the course of the animals life

- Symptomatic epilepsy - this is a primary epilepsy that allows the veterinarian to see lesions and damage to the brain via radiographic technologies

- Idiopathic epilepsy - this form of the disease does not appear to cause any brain damage even if there are several seizures

- Cluster seizures - this is where the dog has more than one seizure in a 24 hour period

- Status epilepsy - this is a more severe case where the seizure activity is constant or the brain never comes out of the seizure completely

If the dog has repeated seizures there is more likelihood of brain damage occurring. Most dogs with seizures are genetically predisposed, meaning if their parents had a form of epilepsy, they are more prone to develop symptoms as well.

Causes for Dog Seizures

If at all possible, locating the cause of the seizures is explored, because when the veterinarian knows the cause, they can treat your dog accordingly. Some seizures are caused by low blood sugar levels is very common in toy breeds. Another cause can be low calcium levels as well as dogs with liver disease. When the cause is understood, it makes treating the disorder more effective.

Treatment Options

There are several different routes to treating dog seizures, but if at all possible finding the cause of the seizure should first be explored. If the cause is identified, the treatment begins there. For instance, if the dog has low blood sugar levels, getting this corrected will cause the seizures to cease. If there is no underlying cause or it cannot be identified, most dogs are placed on medications specifically for controlling the seizures and preventing them from happening.

Dogs with seizures can live a normal lifespan, if the condition is caught early and there is a simple underlying cause. Those dogs that have a causation cannot be found, tend to not live as long because they eventually have brain damage from continued seizures.

Many dogs with continued seizures for no apparent known cause become immune to the medications, in other words, they no longer respond to the treatment so the dosages have to be increased.

Final Thoughts

When your dog friend has seizures, it can be a very frightening experience to watch. If there is no underlying cause for the seizures, your dog can possibly have a seizure at any given time. Therefore, it is essential that someone is always with the dog in case of a seizure that does not end. These types of seizures need immediate medical intervention or brain damage will surely follow.

What to Know About Dogs Seizure

I first learned about Geriatric Vestibular Disease when my poodle dog, Max, woke up one night in distress. He stood up, his body curved into a "C" shape towards the side, and continually moved his head to one side. He could only walk in circles, and he had an eye twitch. When his symptoms did not resolve after about fifteen minutes, I rushed him off to the emergency veterinary clinic, fearing a brain tumor or other life-threatening disorder.

The veterinarians at the emergency clinic quickly checked him over and presented me with a diagnosis of vestibular disease, akin to vertigo in humans. In vestibular disease, something affects the vestibular apparatus, defined by as the "neurological equipment responsible for perceiving one's body's orientation relative to the earth...and informing one's eyes and extremities how they should move accordingly. This vestibular apparatus is what allow us to walk, or even run, on very uneven ground without falling, helps us know when we need to right ourselves and allows our eyes to focus on moving objects without becoming dizzy".

Symptoms of the vestibular disease can include lack of coordination, nausea or motion sickness, back and forth or rotational eye movement, circling, head tilt, falling to one side and/or trouble with nerves controlling the head and face. The most common causes are the middle ear infection, brain lesion or tumor, or "idiopathic" (i.e. sudden onset of unknown cause). The veterinarian will look for certain clues in a dog's symptoms to determine whether something in the brain is causing the problem. For example, if the eye twitches are up and down or only occur when the dog is placed in certain positions, then brain involvement is suspected. Vestibular disease can result from a brain tumor, some sort of vascular accident or from an infection such as Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

On the other hand, if the dog has a history of chronic ear infections, veterinarians will most likely explore middle or inner ear problems as a first line diagnosis. Similarly, idiopathic vestibular disease (usually seen in geriatric dogs) can be suspected if the onset is acute. Only your veterinarian can determine if your dog's symptoms are related to vestibular disease or some other cause, and can then recommend any additional tests (such as checking the ears or diagnostic imaging of the brain) to pinpoint the source.

Treatment is generally straightforward and can include anti-nausea and anti-motion sickness medication such as metoclopramide. If the infection is suspected, antibiotics may also be prescribed. Assuming there is no brain tumor or another more serious brain lesion, improvement can be seen in as little as a few days and most dogs are back to normal within one or two weeks.

Geriatric vestibular disease is frightening in its symptoms, but barring any serious cause such as a tumor, is readily treatable. In Tiny's case, with a history of chronic ear infections, he was easily treated and back to his old self within a few days.

Geriatric Vestibular Disease in Dogs

Dog attacks are reaching epidemic proportions. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that 4.5 to 4.7 million dog bites take place in the United States alone. Of these cases, approximately 756,000 require medical attention.

The majority of dog bite victims are children age 10 and under. Others susceptible to dog attacks are the elderly, postal carriers and others who routinely make "house calls" such as meter readers. The commonly held myth that strays are the culprits of most dog attacks is a fallacy. The reality is, the perpetrator of most dog bites are not strays, but the family dog. In fact, you are more likely to be attacked by your own dog or the dog of your friend or neighbor. The stereotype of a vicious dog lurking in the alleyway, ready to pounce on an unsuspecting victim, needs to be dispelled. Only then, can the issue of dog bites and their prevention be adequately addressed.

Statistics by the CDC show that the number one indicator of dog bites is neutering. Non-sterilized male dogs are three times more likely to bite than their neutered counterparts. Properly socializing and training one's pet is also crucial in the prevention of dog bites. This is most assuredly a preventable problem as the major cause of dog bites is the irresponsibility of the dog's owner.

As a dog owner or potential dog owner, there are ways to guard against the possibility of you, your children, neighbors or friends being attacked. Becoming an informed pet owner is the first step to being a responsible pet owner.

How to Guard Against the Possibility of Dog Bites?

• Due to the high incidence of dog bites in younger children, it is recommended that you wait until your child is at least 4 years or older before bringing a dog into the home.

• Socialize your pet. Start when he/she is a young puppy so that they will not fear or be uneasy around other people, animals, events (family gatherings) and places (the park). This should be done gradually. Little by little, expose your pet to different situations under circumstances that are as controlled as possible.

• Neuter your pet. As stated above, a neutered dog is three times less apt to bite.

• Before obtaining a pet, consider the breed carefully. A veterinarian would be an invaluable source of information.
 They could inform you about the temperament of a particular breed and which one would be best suited for lifestyle and living situation.

• Ensure your dog's vaccinations is up to date. It is also essential to monitor their general health. Irritability often goes hand-in-hand with illness. Making sure your dog is healthy will ensure that they are less likely to bite.

• Spend ample time with your pet. Dogs are extremely social animals and will often develop behavior problems if left alone for extended periods of time.

• Properly training your pet is essential to the prevention of dog bites. Teach your pet to "stay", "sit", "come" and "no" as well as incorporating fun games to aid in the formation of a bond of trust and obedience not only between you and your dog but also between your dog and people in general. You do not want your pet to be perpetually leery or fearful of other humans, as this will make them more prone to bite out of fear or uncertainty.

How to Keep Children Safe Around Dogs

Since young children are the number one victims of dog bites, parents and other adults should:

• Never leave a small child or baby unattended around a dog. No matter how sociable or well behaved the dog may appear, there is always the potential that they may bite. It is better to be safe than sorry.

• Teach children, regardless the age, to be careful around animals. This includes teaching them to never approach an unfamiliar dog and to always ask permission from the dog owner before petting or touching their furry, four-legged friend.

• Be on guard for possible dangers.

There may come a time when you are faced with the potential of being bitten. In order to stay as safe as possible, there are certain things you need to know. Also, it is imperative to teach this information to your children as well.

When Dogs Attack
First, never approach a dog that is caring for their young, eating or sleeping. Female dogs are known to be extremely protective of their puppies. In order to guard against a potential bite, it would be best to leave them alone when they are nursing or otherwise caring for their puppies needs. Also, a dog startled from their sleep may bite instinctively as a protective response.

If you feel threatened by a dog, the best thing to do is remain calm. Don’t make eye contact and back away. Never turn and run, as dogs naturally love the thrill of the chase.

Lastly, if a dog does attack and you are forced to the ground, protect your face at all costs. Curl yourself into a ball and cover your face and neck with your hands and arms.

The issue with dog bites is reaching epidemic proportions. It has been noted that many attacks could have been prevented if only the owner was more responsible. Dog bites are truly more a "people problem" than a "dog problem". If you choose to own a dog, it is your duty (not only to your pet) but to society, to take your responsibility seriously. There are things you need to know and do to ensure that your "best friend" does not bite you, your children, neighbors or others in the community. With dog ownership comes the responsibility to care for your pet in such a way that the potential for an attack is minimal.

How to Prevent Dog Bite?

When a puppy grows older, the dog may suffer spinal damage resulting from degenerative processes. In popular parlance, these conditions are referred to as 'slipped discs'. However the term used to describe the spinal damage is not apt as a dog does not have any discs in its spine for any slippage to occur. The problem that occurs in the dogs can be described as loss of resiliency between the vertebrae of the spine of the dog. The problem may arise due to an accident or due to a gradual degeneration due to age.

One reason for spinal problems in the dog may be the fact that the owner of the dog encouraged a sedentary life style of the dog. As the dog grows older, it becomes lazy and prefers a sedentary life style. The onus is upon the owner to prevent the dog from becoming lazy. Lack of exercise decreases blood flow to various parts of the body of the dog. Decrease in blood flow leads to slackening of muscles and allows the spinal shock absorbers to lose their thickness and their resilience. Upon a sudden impact, they may be come perforated. If the sedentary life style is combined with lack of nutritious food, the shock absorbers may be starved of nutrients as well. This impairs their regenerative abilities.

Irrespective of the cause of the problem, the rehabilitative measures for this problem remain the same. The diet of the dog must be repaired and it must be fed lots of Vitamin C and bioflavonoids. The digestive potential may be enhanced by making use of enzyme therapy. The therapy may be undertaken by internal feeding as well as external injection at the site of the diseased vertebrae. The diet must be enriched with raw grated vegetables and sprouts. These form sources of live enzymes, vitamins and minerals. Comfrey, which is a herb, is very useful to heal bone disorders. Make sure you interact with your vet in all stages of the treatment.

If your dog is suffering from this problem, prevent it from walking up and down the stairs. This form of exercise shall put additional pressure on the weakened spinal joints. Place the dog on a level ground. As the dog improves, make it walk on level ground. Only when the dog becomes stronger should you allow it to undertake vigorous exercises like climbing stairs etc.

It is very important to remember that slip discs in dogs do not appear out of the blue. They cannot be merely wished away either. It occurs due to lack of attention towards the diet and lifestyle of the dog. It shall be eliminated only when the diet and the lifestyle improves along with the administration of medicines. To avoid slip discs due to accidents, do not take your dog out if it not on the leash. Slip discs can lead to paralysis and even impairment of motor functions and excretory functions. Once this occurs, death is the only consequence.

Unless it is an emergency, the owner of the dog should not take the temperature of the dog. There always is the risk of breakage of the thermometer and the absorption of the thermometer in the rectum of the dog. Further, mere knowledge of high temperature will not be sufficient to diagnose the disease. Hence, it is always better to call the vet.

How Your Dog Can Suffer From a Slipped Disc

I'm believe you remember the horrors of the Pet Food Recall of 2007, and if you want to prevent tainted dog food in the future, you will want to pay close attention to the information in this article. I'm going to show you why the commercial brands are dangerous, what ingredients should be in your dog's food, which foods you should never give your dog, and how to make your dog's meals yourself. When you're done with this article, you will always be sure that if there is ever another recall, your dog won't be in any danger.

Stop feeding your dog commercial food
The best way to prevent tainted dog food in the future is to stay away from the source - commercial brands. It's the least healthy food you can give your dog. Even at it's best, it is still toxic. The industry isn't regulated very well so they can get away with a lot of deceptive practices. For example, the meat in the store brands can consist of euthanized dogs that may still have some of the chemicals and poisons in them, road kill, and by-products that are unfit for human consumption and have very little nutritional value. They can also contain fillers like corn, which dogs cannot digest. I'm sure you can see how easily these dangerous products can become contaminated. To prevent tainted dog food, always avoid them completely.

Learn what foods and ingredients are healthy for dogs
Fortunately, we don't need to depend on commercial brands to nourish our dogs. There are many foods that we can buy that are much healthier. Among those foods are chicken, turkey, fish, beef, and eggs. They should always be cooked thoroughly, never given raw. These whole foods are great natural sources of protein. Other healthy ingredients are vegetables such as celery, spinach, cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, zucchini, and peas. Another important component of a dog's diet is starch. This requirement can be satisfied with cooked potatoes or brown rice. Using these foods is a great way to ensure that your dog is getting the proper nutrition. But not all healthy people foods are good for dogs.

Find out what foods and Ingredients to avoid and why
It's essential to know what foods are not good for dogs. Bones of any kind are very dangerous because they can splinter and choke your dog or the sharp fragments can become lodged in or puncture his intestines. Definitely stay away from feeding your dog chocolate, grapes, and raisins. They are toxic to dogs. In addition, milk products are bad because dogs don't have enough of the proper enzyme to digest them properly. Corn should also be avoided because dogs can't digest it at all. Can you believe it's the main filler for many commercial dog foods? Other ingredients to steer clear of include onions, garlic, macadamia nuts, avocados, white bread, white rice, and any food that is going bad. Please remember that dogs are not garbage disposals.

Learn how to prepare your dog's food yourself

It's not as hard as you think as there are many recipes that you can find to make fresh, natural meals for your dog. And since you know what ingredients you can use and what you shouldn't use, you can prepare his food with confidence and peace of mind. It's nice to know what is actually in the food you are giving your dog. Not only will he love it, but he will also be healthier, more active, and will live longer. Your beloved K-9 companion is definitely worth the effort.

You have just learned the 4 simple steps to prevent tainted dog food. Remember to stop feeding your dog the commercial brands, feed him healthy whole foods, keep far away from ingredients that are bad for dogs, and begin making your dog's meals yourself. Armed with this important information, you should now be able to easily make your dog's meals and rest assured that you are doing everything in your power to prevent tainted dog food from ever being a problem in your household again.

How to Avoid Contaminated Dog Food

Dogs are amazing pets and as a dog owner, it is your responsibility to be aware of the many dog health problems. This article is about one dog health problem – Face licking.

Just about all dog owner has observed this common vice in a pet. There are a lot of reasons dogs engage in face licking and not all face licking can be conclusively considered related to health problems. The following are some of the reasons dogs lick their face.

Biological: A mother dog will always lick her newborn puppies. This helps to rouse them from their post-partum stupor and clean away the birth sac. It also stimulates their breathing and to pass feces and urine. This is also the beginning of the bonding between a mother and her puppies. Even if the dog owner cleans the puppies, the mother will still lick them. Sometimes, a puppy may be observed licking the mother lip to stimulate the mother to vomit. When this vomiting occurs, the puppies will eat it.

Psychology: When nervous or stressed, dogs will exhibit certain behaviors just the same as humans. The next time you are stopped at a traffic light, observe the driver of the car next to you. He or she may be paying with his or her hair or chewing the fingernails. Dogs will also exhibit odd behaviors, such as lip licking, as an expression of nervousness or stress. Visiting the same vet's office where a previous visit had been unpleasant or painful may very well cause such a behavior.

Under conditions of stress, dogs of a sensitive nature will often lick themselves. This can possibly cause acral lick dermatitis, depending on where the dog licks. Sometimes, a dog under stress will lick walls, floors, and furniture rather than its own body. To put a stop to this kind of licking behavior, the root cause, such as stress or anxiety, must be identified and treated.

When the owner doesn't like the licking, regardless of the reason, the best way to stop it is with reward and mild punishment. A reward is the most likely way to elicit a positive response according to psychologist BF Skinner.

When a dog responds in kind to its owner's affectionate hug or kiss greeting, or stress or anxiety causes it to lick other things like the floor or furniture, a gentle tap on the face will gradually teach the dog that licking is not acceptable. Sometimes this will keep a dog health problem like licking from becoming difficult to stop later.

How to Stop Dog Licking

There is no doubt that owning a dog is one of the greatest privileges that any person can have. Dogs are loyal, friendly, and funny and they provide people of all ages the opportunities to learn and grow. Bringing a new puppy home can be fraught with lots of challenges that many people are not prepared for. Maybe you just adopt a new puppy Or, your female dog has had a beautiful litter of puppies but for some reason or another is not nursing them.

If these scenarios sound familiar, or if you've found yourself in a situation where you have a puppy that cannot be nursed the natural way, you are going to have to feed him or her by hand. The most effective means for accomplishing this is via bottle feeding.

When you first take on the task of bottle feeding a puppy it is extremely important to remember that the younger your puppy is, the more often you are going to have to feed him or her. During the puppies first two or three days of age you will need to bottle feed approximately once every two hours and for the rest of the first week a minimum of once every three hours.

After the first week your puppy is going to need to be fed at least five or six times per day. As puppies get older the frequency with which you will need to hold a bottle feeding session will decline.

You're first order of importance when considering to bottle feed a puppy, or making the preparations to do so, that what you feed him or her is nutritionally balanced to fit the puppies needs. There are a number of puppy milk formulas on the market that will take the guesswork out of mixing your own formula, three of the most common are: Esbilac, Puppylac and Hartz Advanced Care Puppy Milk Replacement.

Now that you've determined what you're going to feed your puppy, you need to have a bottle to actually perform the task of feeding. Most veterinary clinics, pet stores and pet departments in larger department stores will have bottles specifically designed for nursing puppies. If you are unable to procure an actually puppy nursing bottle you can substitute a human infant bottle equipped with a preemie nipple.

The actual bottle feeding process is really quite simple. First mix the formula and be sure that it is mixed well and without clumps as otherwise will cause the formula's nutrients to not be dispersed well and also bottle nipple will plug. While the formula is cooling to room temperature make sure you puppy is lying on his or her belly.

Gently insert the nipple into the puppy's mouth. If you're puppy doesn't take the nipple directly let a small drop fall on his or her mouth and with an extremely gentle prying motion open your puppies mouth and insert the nipple that way. Once the nipple is in place your puppy should take to the nipple and begin sucking naturally.

Be careful to not overfeed your puppy, play it safe and allow them to only drink a little less than they desire. Overfeeding can result in a number issues that can be detrimental to your puppies health that may require veterinary assistance to correct. It is always better to feed a lesser amount but increase the frequency of feeding sessions.

Just as with a human infant, puppies need to be burped too. At the end of a feeding session hold your puppy upright against your shoulder and gently pat his or her back. By doing so you will decrease the likelihood that your puppy's belly will bloat and will lower the chances for your puppy to become colicky.

How to Bottle Feed a New Puppy

Puppies are like human babies. They need tender care and are very subtle creatures. Giving them the care that puppies need is no different from taking care human babies. The minute a puppy is born until it is six months old, it can be very helpless and needs all the care in order for it to survive. A puppy should be fed four to six times a day if possible. Puppies needs to feed four times the amount of food that adult dogs feed on and it is in the food that puppies eat where they can grow healthy and gain weight and be old enough to care for themselves.

What happens when a mother dog can't care for her pups, died during childbirth, or can't produce enough milk for them all? Often these puppies be become orphaned and are picked up by humane organizations. If you are willing to work hard caring for a puppy, these new orphans can fill your heart with warmth. Be sure to begin with a visit to the vet so that he can get them started on all the right shots and feeding schedule.

Puppies are a lot of fun, but you must be very responsible as well. You'll need to establish a regular feeding schedule and begin to housebreak them immediately. It can be time-consuming, but if you can make this commitment, you'll have a lifelong friend. Puppies must be nurtured and socialized. Orphaned puppies will not have the benefit of natural milk, so nutrition will be very important to prevent diseases. Sanitizing the area where the puppy sleeps is also important.

Remembering all of the puppies needs will help you to make a realistic decision as to whether or not you truly have the time for a new puppy. An orphaned puppy will need to start out with either bottle feeding or tube feeding. Bottle feeding is usually the best option. Tubes can be risky to the puppy, as the tube can move into the lungs and cause choking. When bottle feeding, avoid choking by feeding the pup while it is on its' belly.

So what puppy formula should you use? It's a good idea to ask your vet, however Esbilac or Puppylac are widely used formulas. Cow milk, goat milk, raw egg whites, and honey should never be given to a puppy. Egg whites contain an enzyme that is dangerous for puppies, and honey can be fatal. Finally, you'll need to monitor the calories your puppy is taking in each day in order to keep a healthy weight. Begin with 60-69 calories per pound in week one. Then move up to 70-79 calories per pound in week two, 80-89 per pound in week three, and 90-100 in week four.

How to Care for a New Puppy

Sometimes it seems like a dog will eat almost anything. It can be very tempting to share what you are eating because of those big eyes that follow every move that you make. You may find yourself tempted to slip your dog some scraps from the dinner table. Before you do, however, you should know that there are some foods you should never feed to your dog. The following are the six most fatal foods your dog should avoid, some of them may surprise you.

Sweets: Although most people already know that chocolates are definitely a no-no for your dog, you should also avoid feeding your dog any types of sweets at all. Sugary foods and drinks can cause your dog to suffer from obesity, dental problems or even diabetes just as it can in humans. Baked goods, gums and other candies can lead to possible liver failure or possibly even seizures.

Onions:  Onion powder and garlic are some other foods that can wreak havoc. All types of onion and garlic are problem to dogs. This includes cooked, raw, dehydrated, powders or those in foods. They can break down a dog's red blood cells and drastically decrease the oxygen that gets in to its blood. While the problems might not show up right away, they can accumulate over time. Look out for symptoms like diarrhea, loss of appetite, vomiting, and a general malaise.

Bread Dough: Avoid bread dough. Its soft consistency may cause the dog to think that it can swallow the dough whole. The dough can then rise in your pup's stomach and cause bloating and nausea. Pets that have eaten bread dough may experience abdominal pain, bloat, vomiting, disorientation and depression. As the dough rises, it expands in the stomach making it difficult to "vomit". Several dogs have to have the dough removed surgically in some strange situations.

Alcohol:  Dogs and alcohol are a bad combination; their bodies simply cannot handle it. Giving a dog alcohol can very easily lead to alcohol poisoning, Signs of alcohol poisoning may include odor of alcohol on the animal's breath, , behavioral changes, staggering, excitement, increased urination, depression, cardiac arrest or slowed respiratory rate and death.

Certain Fruits: There are certain fruits that you should also avoid giving to your dog. Avocado is just one of them. Avocados contain persin, which is harmless to humans but possibly toxic to dogs. Grapes and raisins can also cause kidney failures. You'll notice a change in your dog's behavior when he starts becoming lethargic. Repeated vomiting can also be a sign of illness from eating grapes and raisins. Fruits that have seeds in it such as persimmons, peaches, and plums can lead to intestinal inflammation as the seeds can obstruct the intestine or stomach.

Drinks: Be warned, that large amounts of caffeine can be fatal to your dog. Watch out for signs of caffeine poisoning. Your dog’s rapid breathing, muscle tremors, and even bleeding can detect these. Some medicines also contain caffeine so be careful of the home medications that you give to your dog. Alcohol, of course, shouldn't be given to your dog. Any drinks with alcohol such as beer, wine, or liquor can affect your dog's liver, brain, and central nervous system.

As most vets would advise, you should always give your dog a high-quality grade of dog food. Vitamins will also help boost your dog's immune system to fight off diseases and other possible sicknesses. If your dog may have ingested any of the foods mentioned above, make sure to contact your vet and ask for advice and medication that will ensure your dog isn't affected long term.

Six Most Fatal Foods Your Dog Should Avoid

Taking your pup for a walk is an amazing task. In a perfect world, he will calmly walk by your side or a little behind you hardly paying attention to other animals and people. Unfortunately, this is generally far from the truth. No matter where we walk our pooches we need to teach them manners and respect. That way the walks are pleasurable instead of stressful. The following are the 5 guidelines for better walks with your dog.

1. Use the right tools. The kind of leash/harness/collar combo you use is dependent on your particular dog's needs. Pretty much any dog can walk nicely on a standard flat collar if taught how to do it using techniques such as the red light/green light game. Front-attaching harnesses and head halters can be helpful for pullers. And back attaching harness are good for small dogs with a delicate trachea, or for doing behavior modification work such as BAT. But no dog, I repeat - NO DOG - should be on a retractable leash. Please, if you have one, throw it in the can right now. I have seen retractable leashes snap in two more times than I care to recall. They are a major safety hazard. In regards to teaching your dog to walk nicely, they will do the exact opposite by encouraging pulling, lack of focus and disengagement with the handler. When it comes to retractable leashes, just say no.

2. Play Red Light/Green Light. This is really more of a rule than a game, but games are fun and rules aren't, so let's call it a game. Every time the dog pulls and the leash gets tight - stop abruptly. That's your red light. Now do absolutely nothing and wait for your dog to slacken the leash on her own. This means no giving verbal cues, manipulating the leash or prompting in any way. Wait it out. The dog will eventually either shift her body back, turn to look at you, circle behind you or sit down, and the leash will slacken. The moment the leash is loose, mark the behavior verbally ("yes") or with a clicker and begin moving forward again. This is the green light. The consequence for pulling is we stop and remove the reinforcer (moving forward). The reward for putting slack on the leash is we resume moving forward. This technique works wonders on even the worst pullers, but it does require a bit of patience.

3. Use life rewards. Life rewards are simply things that your dog enjoys and finds rewarding that are part of daily life. The life rewards that you may encounter on walks are things like greeting dogs and people, sniffing interesting smells, playing with or carrying sticks or having the freedom to choose which direction to go in and what area to explore. One of my favorite life rewards combines sniffing and exploring. When I notice that the dog I'm walking is drawn to a particular area, I will stop, have her sit and give me eye contact and then say "free" and point to the area. At first, the dog usually needs a little coaxing since they know I make decisions about where to go on the leash, but once they get the hang of it, they learn that 'free' means "OK, take a moment to sniff around and explore freely." I make sure to follow the dog closely wherever she wants to go so that we keep the leash loose. After 30 seconds or so, I'll give a command that indicates to the dog that free time is over and I expect them to follow me again. Usually, that will be a heel command. The beautiful thing about this is that we teach the dog that they can have their cake and eat it too. They can have what they want, they just have to ask nicely for it and earn access to it. In this case, the dog did it by sitting and giving me attention. Life rewards are everywhere. Use them.

4. Reward natural behaviors. Dogs are always doing awesome things that usually get completely ignored. When I'm training with puppies, I'll make a huge deal about it every single time the dog looks up at me while we are working on lead. Attentiveness on the leash is a wonderful behavior to reinforce, and when you do, you'll get a lot more if it. If you notice that at times, your dog walks easily at the heel, make sure to let her know that you like what she is doing. You can praise, treat, and/or use life rewards.

5. Be decisive. This is a big one for many dog owners and it raises the question, who's walking who? So often, it is the dog making all the decisions on the walk while the human trails along. This is no good. At best, it's simply giving your dog the wrong idea about who is in charge and can lead a dog to ignore attempts at leadership in other situations. At worst, it could mean a dog being hit by a car or a fight that ends in a vet or hospital visit. So let's make the decision to make more decisions! You will make the decisions about which way to go, where to stop, how long you wait when the dog can greet, how the dog can greet, when the dog crosses streets and goes through doors, how fast or slow you move, and what behavior is acceptable on the leash. This is a far safer approach to walks and it is also an approach that teaches your dog that you are the decision maker. Our dogs need that from us - particularly the working breeds. Teach them to defer to you and to follow you, and life with your dog will be far easier and more enjoyable.

5 Guidelines for Better Walks with Your Dog

Dog owners always say they wish they had held their dog more because as they look back, although their dog is only few years old, they are not small puppy anymore and the time seems to have passed so rapidly. It is common knowledge that dogs age faster than humans and you may notice certain signs when the aging process starts. What is important to note is that dogs do not all age in the same way and at the same pace. Much of the pace depends on their up keep. A properly fed, exercised, loved and well socialized dog will likely age better with a stronger body and mind. However, they do age and seeing the signs ahead of time can make the difference between a well, gracefully ageing dog or a sick ageing one.

Signs Of An Ageing Dog

Stiffening joints and arthritis. These the two most common dog ageing conditions. It is likely your dog will be less interested in joining in the fun of playing ball or going out for a run. He may seem reluctant to partake in much activity. Cold wet weather will contribute to his discomfort.

Doesn't recuperate at a normal pace. When your dog doesn't recuperate from injuries or illnesses as fast it's can be a sign his ageing years are setting in and his physical health is changing. At seven years of age the bones begin to lose density making it harder to heal. If they are already exercising less muscle is losing mass and cartilage is wearing thin. It is often at this stage that signs of arthritis begin to show. An ageing dog's immune system also weakens which is why it is so important what he is fed in young life.

Ensuring your dog has a strong immune system from the beginning and throughout his young life is a dog wellness practice that should not be ignored. Natural pet health care is the best way to ensure your dog is living on the wellness side of life to make him strong for his ageing years.

Loss of hearing. Although usually at a slow pace, loss of hearing takes place as the nerve cells begin to deteriorate. Take note if you have to call your dog more times than normal or if you find you are calling him and he is not coming at all.

Loss of Vision. At some point the eye lens becomes cloudy and although this does not cause major vision loss, sometimes cataracts can develop causing vision loss.

Cognitive Dysfunction is a common ailment of ageing dogs, which has a huge impact on their daily life and you're as a pet owner as well. Dog wellness due diligence is recognizing and properly handling this situation for your ageing dog. People he knows well will suddenly feel like strangers to him. He may also become nervous for no reason which can be a sign he has suddenly forgotten where he is.

Decreased Activity means your ageing dog's metabolic rate is slowing down. This is of course after you have checked for any injuries or physical discomfort that may also be causing less activity. There can be other reasons for this so if you notice this in your dog your need to have it checked out immediately.

Weight Gain is a common factor of an ageing dog. Senior dogs require anywhere from 30 to 40 percent fewer calories. Dog wellness practices means ensuring you switch your elderly dog to a senior appropriate diet, with the appropriate amount of calories for his age. Neglecting this practice will result in obesity. Remember that ageing dogs also exercise less so they are not able to burn the calories they used to. Amend his diet to suit is ageing lifestyle.

7 Dog Ageing Signs

If you are looking for ways to allow your dog to enjoy all the freedom and, at the same time, keep the dog within certain limits, the wireless dog fence is the best choice. The dog will not need any leash and will not be restricted by any physical limits. The dog can also be controlled using a wireless fence even when the owner is not at home. If you decide to take your pet on vacation but do not want the dog to disappear from sight, a wireless dog fence will be very useful. The following are some of the most important benefits of wireless dog fences.

No visible boundary: The dog fence uses only one single wire as a boundary. So you don't have to assign an irritating fence around your home. Also, the fence can be hidden under the carpet or any other thing. So it will not be visible to disturb the decoration of your room or make it difficult to walk around the room.

Low cost: The wireless dog fence is a much more cost-effective way of protecting your dog from going outside than a visible fence. You don't have to build a conventional boundary with a lot of money and spending a lot of time. The wireless fence can save you a lot.

More effective: The wireless fence is much more effective than any other protection method. The dog will get a mild electric shock if it crosses the boundary. The shock will not do any major harm to the dog but will make the dog careful to cross the border. And it will eventually learn to respect the fence.

Effective for any size of room: The wireless dog fence is an effective method for any size of the place. You can define the dimensions of the boundary by the wire you use and it can be small or large. For a very large place, you can use the GPS enable technology. This will protect the wide area without any boundary. The wireless dog fence is a much more cost-effective way of protecting your dog from going outside than a visible fence. You don't have to build a conventional boundary with a lot of money and spending a lot of time. The wireless dog fence can save you a lot.

4 Reasons Why You Need a Wireless Dog Fence

Sully, with a silent shake of his paw, agreed to “support, comfort, as well as cheering the warriors and their families" at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

Former President George H.W. Bush's service dog, Sully, is now a member of the United States Navy.

The Labrador retriever joined Walter Reed's military medical facility Dog Program in Bethesda, Maryland, on Wednesday, as a sworn service dog.

Sully, now known as the Navy Officer Corpsman (HM) Petty officer Sully, swore an oath in front of US servicemen and women and at least six other service dogs, while promising to "support, comfort and cheer warriors and their families, active service and retired. "

In addition, Sully accepted, with a silent shake of his paw, that he was taking the role freely, "without any promise of tummy massage or treats."

A photograph later posted on Sully's Instagram account celebrated his recruitment as "an honor and privilege to join a wonderful group of dogs at Walter Reed Bethesda."

"I look forward to continue my mission of serving veterans as my best friend wanted me to," the pot read.

The ceremony comes after Sully briefly serving as Bush's service dog before the president's death last November. Prior to that, Sully was trained by American VetDogs, a non-profit organization that collects and trains service dogs for disabled veterans and first responders.

Sully, named after retired aviation pilot Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger III, who was famous for landed a damaged airline plane on the Hudson River in 2009, captured hearts around the world while attending the late president’s funeral of and memorial services. With the dog frequently seen lying and sitting before his casket.

Sully, George H.W. Bush’s Service Dog, Takes on New Role Helping Military Patients